Description:The English silver penny was introduced around the year 785 by King Offa of Mercia, a Kingdom of Anglo-Saxon England. Queen Elizabeth I also minted these coins during her reign in the 16th century and the penny stayed in circulation continuously until the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The obverse side of this penny depicts the crowned bust of the queen, with the legend E D G ROSA SINE SPINA “Elizabeth by the grace of God a rose without a thorn”. The reverse shows a long cross over the royal shield and the legend CIVI TAS LON DON “City of London”, where this silver penny was minted.
Elizabeth I was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty and ruled from 1558 until her death in 1603. She supported the establishment of an English Protestant Church, which later evolved into today's Church of England. During her reign, the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, was one of the greatest military victories in English history. Elizabeth never married and was celebrated famous for her virginity. The time of her rule is known as the Elizabethan era, a golden age famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwright William Shakespeare, and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Sir Francis Drake.